INDIA'S NUCLEAR POWER - 2017
WNA - Nuclear Power in India
- India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power programme and expects to have 14.6 GWe nuclear capacity on line by 2024 and 63 GWe by 2032. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050.
- Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons programme, it was for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009.
- Due to earlier trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
- Since 2010, a fundamental incompatibility between India’s civil liability law and international conventions limits foreign technology provision.
India in 2015 produced 1383 TWh of electricity, 1042 TWh (75%) of this from coal, 138 TWh (10%) from hydro, 68 TWh (5%) from natural gas, 48 TWh (3.5%) from solar and wind, 37 TWh (2.7%) from nuclear, 27 TWh from biofuels, and 23 TWh from oil. There were virtually no imports or exports of electricity in 2015, and about 19% of production was lost during transmission. Consumption in 2015 came to about 1027 TWha, or about 800 kWh per capita on average. Total installed capacity as of June 2017 was about 330 GWe, consisting of 220 GWe fossil fuels, 58 GWe renewables (including small hydro), 45 GWe large hydro, and less than 7 GWe nuclearb.India's dependence on imported energy resources and the inconsistent reform of the energy sector are challenges to satisfying rising demand. The 2017 edition of BP's Energy Outlook projected India's energy consumption rising by 129% between 2015 and 2035. It predicts that the country's energy mix will evolve very slowly to 2035, with fossil fuels accounting for 86% of demand in 2035, compared with a global average of 78% (down from 86% today).There is an acute demand for more reliable power supplies. Whilst access to electricity is improving, over 20% of the population did not have access to electricity in 2014c.The government's 12th five-year plan for 2012-17 targeted the addition of 94 GWe over the period, costing $247 billion. By 2032 the plan called for total installed capacity of 700 GWe to meet 7-9% GDP growth, with 63 GWe nuclear. The OECD's International Energy Agency predicts that India will need some $1.6 trillion investment in power generation, transmission and distribution to 2035.
NPCIL supplied 35 TWh of India's electricity in 2013-14 from 5.3 GWe nuclear capacity, with overall capacity factor of 83% and availability of 88%. Some 410 reactor-years of operation had been achieved to December 2014. India's fuel situation, with shortage of fossil fuels, is driving the nuclear investment for electricity, and 25% nuclear contribution is the ambition for 2050, when 1094 GWe of base-load capacity is expected to be required. Almost as much investment in the grid system as in power plants is necessary.
The target since about 2004 was for nuclear power to provide 20 GWe by 2020, but in 2007 the prime minister referred to this as "modest" and capable of being "doubled with the opening up of international cooperation." However, it is evident that even the 20 GWe target would require substantial uranium imports and acceleration of nuclear power plant construction. In June 2009 NPCIL said it aimed for 60 GWe nuclear by 2032, including 40 GWe of PWR capacity and 7 GWe of new PHWR capacity, all fuelled by imported uranium. This 2032 target was reiterated late in 2010 and increased to 63 GWe in 2011. But in December 2011 parliament was told that more realistic targets were 14,600 MWe by 2020-21 and 27,500 MWe by 2032, relative to then 4780 MWe and 10,080 MWe when reactors under construction were on line in 2017.*
* “the XII Plan [2012-17] proposals ..... envisage start of work on eight indigenous 700 MW pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs), two 500 MW fast breeder reactors (FBRs), one 300 MW advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) and eight light water reactors of 1000 MW or higher capacity with foreign technical cooperation. These nuclear power reactors are expected to be completed progressively in the XIII and XIV Plans.” The 16 PHWRS and LWRs are expected to cost $40 billion. The eight 700 MWe PHWRs would be built at Kaiga in Karnataka, Gorakhpur in Haryana’s Fatehabad District, Banswara in Rajasthan, and Chutka in Madhya Pradesh.
In July 2014 the new prime minister urged DAE to triple the nuclear capacity to 17 GWe by 2024. He praised “India's self-reliance in the nuclear fuel cycle and the commercial success of the indigenous reactors.” He also emphasized the importance of maintaining the commercial viability and competitiveness of nuclear energy compared with other clean energy sources. In March 2017 parliament was told that the 14.6 GWe target of nuclear capacity by 2024 was maintained, relative to 6.7 GWe (gross) grid-connected then.
In May 2017 the cabinet approved ten 700 MWe PHWRs, without locations or timeline, but as a “fully homegrown initiative” with likely manufacturing orders to Indian industry of about INR 700 billion ($11 billion). The prime minister said it would help transform the domestic nuclear industry, which appears to suggest lower expectations of establishing new nuclear plants with Western technology from Areva, GEH, and Westinghouse. No mention was made of the other elements of the 12th five-year plan for 2012-17, i.e. the Western LWRs which were originally intended to accelerate new capacity additions, and also two FBRs and one AHWR. Parliament fully supported the announcement.
After the 2010 liability legislation started to deter foreign reactor vendors, early in 2012 the government said it wanted to see coal production increase by 150 Mt/yr (from 440 Mt/yr) to support 60 GWe new coal-fired capacity to be built by 2015. This would involve Rs 56 billion new investment in rail infrastructure.
However, for the longer term, the Atomic Energy Commission envisages some 500 GWe nuclear online by 2060, and has since speculated that the amount might be higher still: 600-700 GWe by 2050, providing half of all electricity. Another projection is for nuclear share to rise to 9% by 2037. In November 2015 NPCIL was talking of 14.5 GWe by 2024 as a target.
India's operating nuclear power reactors
|Reactor||State||Type||MWe net (each)||Commercial operation||Safeguards status*|
|Tarapur 1&2||Maharashtra||GE BWR||150||1969||Item-specific, Oct 2009|
|Kaiga 1&2||Karnataka||PHWR||202||1999, 2000||nil|
|Kaiga 3&4||Karnataka||PHWR||202||2007, 2012||nil|
|Kakrapar 1&2||Gujarat||PHWR||202||1993, 1995||December 2010 under new agreement|
|Madras 1&2 (MAPS)||Tamil Nadu||PHWR||202||1984, 1986||nil|
|Narora 1&2||Uttar Pradesh||PHWR||202||1991, 1992||From Jan 2015 under new agreement|
|Rajasthan 1&2||Rajasthan||Candu PHWR||90, 187||1973, 1981||Item-specific, Oct 2009|
|Rajasthan 3&4||Rajasthan||PHWR||202||1999, 2000||March 2010 under new agreement|
|Rajasthan 5&6||Rajasthan||PHWR||202||Feb & April 2010||Oct 2009 under new agreement|
|Tarapur 3&4||Maharashtra||PHWR||490||2006, 2005||nil|
|Kudankulam 1&2||Tamil Nadu||PWR (VVER)||917||December 2014, April 2017||Item-specific, Oct 2009|
|Total (22)||6219 MWe|
Madras (MAPS) also known as Kalpakkam
Rajasthan/RAPS is located at Rawatbhata and sometimes called that
Kaiga = KGS, Kakrapar = KAPS, Narora = NAPS
* The safeguarded units to February 2015 are listed in the Annex 7 to India's safeguards agreement with the IAEA.
Tarapur 1&2 and Rajasthan 1&2 have INFCIRC/66 type, the others INFCIRC/754 type.
The eight reactors not under IAEA safeguards all use indigenously-sourced uranium.
India's nuclear power reactors under construction
|Reactor||Type||MWe gross, net (each)||Project control||Construction start||Commercial operation due||Safeguards status|
|Kalpakkam PFBR||FBR||500, 470||Bhavini||Oct 2004||criticality late 2017,
commercial operation 2018?
|Kakrapar 3||PHWR||700, 630||NPCIL||Nov 2010||2022|
|Kakrapar 4||PHWR||700, 630||NPCIL||March 2011||2022|
|Rajasthan 7||PHWR||700, 630||NPCIL||July 2011||2022|
|Rajasthan 8||PHWR||700, 630||NPCIL||Sept 2011||2022|
|Kudankulam 3||PWR||1050, 917||NPCIL||June 2017||2025|
|Total (6)||4350 MWe gross|
Rajasthan/RAPS also known as Rawatbhata
Power reactors planned (XII plan 2012, April 2015 approval in principle, modified in 2017)
|Reactor||State||Type||MWe gross (each)||Project control||Start construction||Start operation|
|Kudankulam 4||Tamil Nadu||AES-92||1050||NPCIL||July 2018?||2023|
|Gorakhpur 1||Haryana (Fatehabad district)||PHWR||700||NPCIL||2017?||2022|
|Chutka 1||Madhya Pradesh (Mandla)||PHWR||700||NPCIL||2017?||2024|
|Mahi Banswara1&2||Rajasthan||PHWR x 2||700||NPCIL||2017?|
|Mahi Banswara 3&4||Rajasthan||PHWR x 2||700||NPCIL||2017?|
|Kaiga 5&6||Karnataka||PHWR x 2||700||NPCIL||2017?|
|Kudankulam 5&6||Tamil Nadu||AES-92 x 2||1050||NPCIL||2019?|
|Kalpakkam 2&3||Tamil Nadu||FBR x 2||600||Bhavini||2017?|
|Jaitapur 1&2||Ratnagiri, Maharashtra||EPR x 2||1700||NPCIL||2018?||delayed due to liability|
|Kovvada 1&2||Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh||AP1000 x 2||1250||NPCIL||2018?||2025, 2026
delayed due to liability
|Subtotal planned||19 units||17,250 MWe|
Power reactors proposed
|Reactor||State||Type||MWe gross (each)||Project control||Start construction||Start operation|
|West Bengal (but likely relocated, maybe to Kavali in Andhra Pradesh)||AES-2006||1200||NPCIL|
|Kudankulam 7&8||Tamil Nadu||AES 2006||1200||NPCIL|
|"Kudankulam 9-12"||Andhra Pradesh||AES-2006||1200||NPCIL|
|Bhimpur 1&2||Madhya Pradesh||PHWR||700||NPCIL|
|Gorakhpur 3&4||Haryana (Fatehabad district)||PHWR||700||NPCIL||2019|
|Chutka 3&4||Madhya Pradesh||PHWR||700||BHEL-NPCIL-GE?|
|Rajouli, Nawada 1&2||Bihar||PHWR||700||NPCIL|
|?||PWR x 2||1000||NPCIL/NTPC|
|Jaitapur 3&4||Ratnagiri, Maharashtra||PWR – EPR||1700||NPCIL|
|?||?||FBR x 4||500||Bhavini|
|Jaitapur 5&6||Ratnagiri, Maharashtra||PWR – EPR||1700||NPCIL|
|Markandi (Pati Sonapur)||Orissa||PWR 6000 MWe||NPCIL|
|Kovvada 3&4||Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh||AP1000||1250||NPCIL||2020?|
|Earlier: "Kovvada 1-6"||Originally Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh||Originally ESBWR||1600||NPCIL||2018?|
|Nizampatnam 1-6||Guntur, Andhra Pradesh||6x?||1200||NPCIL|
|West Bengal, Orissa or Kavali in Andhra Pradesh||AES-2006?||1200||NPCIL|
|Pulivendula||Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh||PWR? PHWR?||1000? 700?||NPCIL 51%, AP Genco 49%|
|Kovvada 5&6||Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh||AP1000||1250||NPCIL||2022?|
|Chhaya-Mithi Virdi 1-6||Bhavnagar, Gujarat||AP1000||1250||NPCIL|
|Subtotal proposed||approx 57||65,000 MWe approx (discounted 44 units, 51 GWe)|
For WNA reactor table: first 20 units 'planned'; next (estimated) 57 units and 65 GWe 'proposed' – 80% of both figures listed (46 and 52,000 MWe). There is likely some duplication among reported plans for West Bengal, Orissa and with Russian units beyond Kudankulam 8.
Uranium resources (as of July 2017)
|State||Districts||Main deposits||Tonnes U|
|Telangana||Nalgonda||Lambapur, Pedagattu, Chitrial||15,731|
|Jharkhand||E.Singhbhum||Jaduguda, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Turamidh, Banduhurang, Mohuldih, Bagjata,||53,237|
|Meghalaya||West Khasi Hills||KPM (Domiasat), Wahkyn, Wahkut||19,538|
|Rajasthan||Sikar, Udaipur||Rohil, Umra||7,989|
|Chhattisgarh||Rajanandgaon, Surguja||Bodal, Jajawal||3,380|
|Himachal Pradesh||Una, Shimla, Mandi||Rajpura||665|
India's uranium mines and mills – existing and planned
|State, district||Mine||Mill||Operating from||tU per year|
|200 total from mill|
|Jharkhand, East Singhbum dist.||Turamdih||Turamdih||2003 (u/g mine)
|190 total from mill|
|Banduhurang||Turamdih||2007 (open pit)|
|Andhra Pradesh, Kadapa/YSR district||Tummalapalle||Tummalapalle||2012
|220 increasing to 330|
|Andhra Pradesh, Kadapa/YSR district||Tummalapalle||Kanampalle?||2017?|
|Telengana, Nalgonda district||Lambapur-Peddagattu||Seripally/Mallapuram||2024? (open pit + 3 u/g)||130|
|Karnataka, Yadgir (Gulbarga) district||Gogi||Diggi/Saidapur||2020? (underground)||130|
|Meghalaya, West Khasi Hills district||Kylleng-Pyndeng-Sohiong-Mawthabah (KPM), (Domiasiat), Wakhyn||Mawthabah||2022? (open pit)||340|
Uranium imports from 2014
|May, 25, 10:55:00|
|May, 25, 10:50:00|
|May, 25, 10:45:00|
|May, 25, 10:40:00|
|May, 25, 10:35:00|
|May, 25, 10:30:00|
REUTERS - Brent LCOc1 futures fell 43 cents, or 0.5 percent, to $79.14 a barrel by 0218 GMT, after climbing 35 cents on Tuesday. Last week, the global benchmark hit $80.50 a barrel, the highest since November 2014. U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude CLc1 futures eased 25 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $71.95 a barrel, having climbed on Tuesday to $72.83 a barrel, the highest since November 2014.
FT - Most oil majors can now cover dividends and capital expenditure at prices around $50 per barrel, meaning that, at $80, they make a healthy surplus.
EIA - The United States remained the world's top producer of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons in 2017, reaching a record high. The United States has been the world's top producer of natural gas since 2009, when U.S. natural gas production surpassed that of Russia, and the world's top producer of petroleum hydrocarbons since 2013, when U.S. production exceeded Saudi Arabia’s. Since 2008, U.S. petroleum and natural gas production has increased by nearly 60%.
PLATTS - China became the largest contributor to global LNG consumption growth in 2017. It surpassed South Korea as the world's second largest LNG importer and its share of global LNG demand is expected to converge with that of Japan by 2030.