Здравствуйте. Вся информация этого сайта бесплатна. Вы можете сделать пожертвование и поддержать наше развитие. Спасибо.

Hello. All information of this site is free of charge. You can make a donation and support our development. Thank you.

2018-01-22 08:15:00



WNA - Nuclear Power in India 

  • India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power programme and expects to have 14.6 GWe nuclear capacity on line by 2024 and 63 GWe by 2032. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050.
  • Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons programme, it was for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009.
  • Due to earlier trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
  • Since 2010, a fundamental incompatibility between India’s civil liability law and international conventions limits foreign technology provision.

India in 2015 produced 1383 TWh of electricity, 1042 TWh (75%) of this from coal, 138 TWh (10%) from hydro, 68 TWh (5%) from natural gas, 48 TWh (3.5%) from solar and wind, 37 TWh (2.7%) from nuclear, 27 TWh from biofuels, and 23 TWh from oil. There were virtually no imports or exports of electricity in 2015, and about 19% of production was lost during transmission. Consumption in 2015 came to about 1027 TWha, or about 800 kWh per capita on average. Total installed capacity as of June 2017 was about 330 GWe, consisting of 220 GWe fossil fuels, 58 GWe renewables (including small hydro), 45 GWe large hydro, and less than 7 GWe nuclearb.India's dependence on imported energy resources and the inconsistent reform of the energy sector are challenges to satisfying rising demand. The 2017 edition of BP's Energy Outlook projected India's energy consumption rising by 129% between 2015 and 2035. It predicts that the country's energy mix will evolve very slowly to 2035, with fossil fuels accounting for 86% of demand in 2035, compared with a global average of 78% (down from 86% today).There is an acute demand for more reliable power supplies. Whilst access to electricity is improving, over 20% of the population did not have access to electricity in 2014c.The government's 12th five-year plan for 2012-17 targeted the addition of 94 GWe over the period, costing $247 billion. By 2032 the plan called for total installed capacity of 700 GWe to meet 7-9% GDP growth, with 63 GWe nuclear. The OECD's International Energy Agency predicts that India will need some $1.6 trillion investment in power generation, transmission and distribution to 2035.

Nuclear power

NPCIL supplied 35 TWh of India's electricity in 2013-14 from 5.3 GWe nuclear capacity, with overall capacity factor of 83% and availability of 88%. Some 410 reactor-years of operation had been achieved to December 2014. India's fuel situation, with shortage of fossil fuels, is driving the nuclear investment for electricity, and 25% nuclear contribution is the ambition for 2050, when 1094 GWe of base-load capacity is expected to be required. Almost as much investment in the grid system as in power plants is necessary.

The target since about 2004 was for nuclear power to provide 20 GWe by 2020, but in 2007 the prime minister referred to this as "modest" and capable of being "doubled with the opening up of international cooperation." However, it is evident that even the 20 GWe target would require substantial uranium imports and acceleration of nuclear power plant construction. In June 2009 NPCIL said it aimed for 60 GWe nuclear by 2032, including 40 GWe of PWR capacity and 7 GWe of new PHWR capacity, all fuelled by imported uranium. This 2032 target was reiterated late in 2010 and increased to 63 GWe in 2011. But in December 2011 parliament was told that more realistic targets were 14,600 MWe by 2020-21 and 27,500 MWe by 2032, relative to then 4780 MWe and 10,080 MWe when reactors under construction were on line in 2017.*

* “the XII Plan [2012-17] proposals ..... envisage start of work on eight indigenous 700 MW pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs), two 500 MW fast breeder reactors (FBRs), one 300 MW advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) and eight light water reactors of 1000 MW or higher capacity with foreign technical cooperation. These nuclear power reactors are expected to be completed progressively in the XIII and XIV Plans.” The 16 PHWRS and LWRs are expected to cost $40 billion. The eight 700 MWe PHWRs would be built at Kaiga in Karnataka, Gorakhpur in Haryana’s Fatehabad District, Banswara in Rajasthan, and Chutka in Madhya Pradesh.

In July 2014 the new prime minister urged DAE to triple the nuclear capacity to 17 GWe by 2024. He praised “India's self-reliance in the nuclear fuel cycle and the commercial success of the indigenous reactors.” He also emphasized the importance of maintaining the commercial viability and competitiveness of nuclear energy compared with other clean energy sources. In March 2017 parliament was told that the 14.6 GWe target of nuclear capacity by 2024 was maintained, relative to 6.7 GWe (gross) grid-connected then.

In May 2017 the cabinet approved ten 700 MWe PHWRs, without locations or timeline, but as a “fully homegrown initiative” with likely manufacturing orders to Indian industry of about INR 700 billion ($11 billion). The prime minister said it would help transform the domestic nuclear industry, which appears to suggest lower expectations of establishing new nuclear plants with Western technology from Areva, GEH, and Westinghouse. No mention was made of the other elements of the 12th five-year plan for 2012-17, i.e. the Western LWRs which were originally intended to accelerate new capacity additions, and also two FBRs and one AHWR. Parliament fully supported the announcement.

After the 2010 liability legislation started to deter foreign reactor vendors, early in 2012 the government said it wanted to see coal production increase by 150 Mt/yr (from 440 Mt/yr) to support 60 GWe new coal-fired capacity to be built by 2015. This would involve Rs 56 billion new investment in rail infrastructure.

However, for the longer term, the Atomic Energy Commission envisages some 500 GWe nuclear online by 2060, and has since speculated that the amount might be higher still: 600-700 GWe by 2050, providing half of all electricity. Another projection is for nuclear share to rise to 9% by 2037. In November 2015 NPCIL was talking of 14.5 GWe by 2024 as a target.

India's operating nuclear power reactors

Reactor State Type MWe net (each) Commercial operation Safeguards status*
Tarapur 1&2 Maharashtra GE BWR 150 1969 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Kaiga 1&2 Karnataka PHWR 202 1999, 2000 nil
Kaiga 3&4 Karnataka PHWR 202 2007, 2012 nil
Kakrapar 1&2 Gujarat PHWR 202 1993, 1995 December 2010 under new agreement
Madras 1&2 (MAPS) Tamil Nadu PHWR 202 1984, 1986 nil
Narora 1&2 Uttar Pradesh PHWR 202 1991, 1992 From Jan 2015 under new agreement
Rajasthan 1&2 Rajasthan Candu PHWR 90, 187 1973, 1981 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Rajasthan 3&4 Rajasthan PHWR 202 1999, 2000 March 2010 under new agreement
Rajasthan 5&6 Rajasthan PHWR 202 Feb & April 2010 Oct 2009 under new agreement
Tarapur 3&4 Maharashtra PHWR 490 2006, 2005 nil
Kudankulam 1&2 Tamil Nadu PWR (VVER) 917 December 2014, April 2017 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Total (22)     6219 MWe    

Madras (MAPS) also known as Kalpakkam
Rajasthan/RAPS is located at Rawatbhata and sometimes called that
Kaiga = KGS, Kakrapar = KAPS, Narora = NAPS

* The safeguarded units to February 2015 are listed in the Annex 7 to India's safeguards agreement with the IAEA. 
Tarapur 1&2 and Rajasthan 1&2 have INFCIRC/66 type, the others INFCIRC/754 type.

The eight reactors not under IAEA safeguards all use indigenously-sourced uranium.

India's nuclear power reactors under construction

Reactor Type MWe gross, net (each) Project control Construction start Commercial operation due Safeguards status
Kalpakkam PFBR FBR 500, 470 Bhavini Oct 2004 criticality late 2017,
commercial operation 2018?
Kakrapar 3 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL Nov 2010 2022  
Kakrapar 4 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL March 2011 2022  
Rajasthan 7 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL July 2011 2022  
Rajasthan 8 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL Sept 2011 2022  
Kudankulam 3 PWR 1050, 917 NPCIL June 2017 2025  
Total (6)   4350 MWe gross        

Rajasthan/RAPS also known as Rawatbhata

Power reactors planned (XII plan 2012, April 2015 approval in principle, modified in 2017)

Reactor State Type MWe gross (each) Project control Start construction Start operation
Kudankulam 4 Tamil Nadu AES-92 1050 NPCIL July 2018? 2023
Gorakhpur 1 Haryana (Fatehabad district) PHWR 700 NPCIL 2017? 2022
Gorakhpur 2   PHWR 700 NPCIL 2017? 2023
Chutka 1 Madhya Pradesh (Mandla) PHWR 700 NPCIL 2017? 2024
Chutka 2   PHWR 700 NPCIL 2017? 2025
Mahi Banswara1&2 Rajasthan PHWR x 2 700 NPCIL 2017?  
Mahi Banswara 3&4 Rajasthan PHWR x 2 700 NPCIL 2017?  
Kaiga 5&6 Karnataka PHWR x 2 700 NPCIL 2017?  
Kudankulam 5&6 Tamil Nadu AES-92 x 2 1050 NPCIL 2019?  
Kalpakkam 2&3 Tamil Nadu FBR x 2 600 Bhavini 2017?  
Jaitapur 1&2 Ratnagiri, Maharashtra EPR x 2 1700 NPCIL 2018? delayed due to liability
Kovvada 1&2 Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh AP1000 x 2 1250 NPCIL 2018? 2025, 2026
delayed due to liability
Subtotal planned   19 units 17,250 MWe  

Power reactors proposed

Reactor State Type MWe gross (each) Project control Start construction Start operation
Tarapur? Maharashtra? AHWR 300 NPCIL 2018? 2022
"Haripur 1&2"
another site
West Bengal (but likely relocated, maybe to Kavali in Andhra Pradesh) AES-2006 1200 NPCIL    
Kudankulam 7&8 Tamil Nadu AES 2006 1200 NPCIL    
"Kudankulam 9-12" Andhra Pradesh AES-2006 1200 NPCIL    
Bhimpur 1&2 Madhya Pradesh PHWR 700 NPCIL    
Gorakhpur 3&4 Haryana (Fatehabad district) PHWR 700 NPCIL 2019  
Chutka 3&4 Madhya Pradesh PHWR 700 BHEL-NPCIL-GE?    
Rajouli, Nawada 1&2 Bihar PHWR 700 NPCIL    
?   PWR x 2 1000 NPCIL/NTPC    
Jaitapur 3&4 Ratnagiri, Maharashtra PWR – EPR 1700 NPCIL    
? ? FBR x 4 500 Bhavini    
Jaitapur 5&6 Ratnagiri, Maharashtra PWR – EPR 1700 NPCIL    
Markandi (Pati Sonapur) Orissa PWR 6000 MWe   NPCIL    
Kovvada 3&4 Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh AP1000 1250 NPCIL 2020?  
Earlier: "Kovvada 1-6" Originally Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh Originally ESBWR 1600 NPCIL 2018?  
Nizampatnam 1-6 Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 6x? 1200 NPCIL    
"Haripur 3&4"
another site
West Bengal, Orissa or Kavali in Andhra Pradesh AES-2006? 1200 NPCIL    
Pulivendula Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh PWR? PHWR? 1000? 700? NPCIL 51%, AP Genco 49%    
Kovvada 5&6 Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh AP1000 1250 NPCIL 2022?  
Chhaya-Mithi Virdi 1-6 Bhavnagar, Gujarat AP1000 1250 NPCIL    
Subtotal proposed   approx 57  65,000 MWe approx (discounted 44 units, 51 GWe)  

For WNA reactor table: first 20 units 'planned'; next (estimated) 57 units and 65 GWe 'proposed' – 80% of both figures listed (46 and 52,000 MWe). There is likely some duplication among reported plans for West Bengal, Orissa and with Russian units beyond Kudankulam 8.

Uranium resources (as of July 2017)

State Districts Main deposits Tonnes U
Andhra Pradesh Kadapa Tummalapalle 120,229
  Guntur Koppunuru 2,341
Telangana Nalgonda Lambapur, Pedagattu, Chitrial 15,731
Jharkhand E.Singhbhum Jaduguda, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Turamidh, Banduhurang, Mohuldih, Bagjata, 53,237
  Saraikela-Kharswan Bangurdih 1,367
Meghalaya West Khasi Hills KPM (Domiasat), Wahkyn, Wahkut 19,538
Rajasthan Sikar, Udaipur Rohil, Umra 7,989
Karnataka Yadgir, S.Kanara Gogi 3,970
Chhattisgarh Rajanandgaon, Surguja Bodal, Jajawal 3,380
Uttar Pradesh Sonbhadra Naktu 666
Uttarakhand Rudraprayag Pokhri-Tunji 85
Himachal Pradesh Una, Shimla, Mandi Rajpura 665
Maharashtra Gondia Mogarra 301
Total     229,499


India's uranium mines and mills – existing and planned

State, district Mine Mill Operating from tU per year
Jharkhand Jaduguda Jaduguda 1967 (mine)
1968 (mill)
200 total from mill
Bhatin Jaduguda 1967  
Narwapahar Jaduguda 1995  
Bagjata Jaduguda 2008  
Jharkhand, East Singhbum dist. Turamdih Turamdih 2003 (u/g mine)
2008 (mill)
190 total from mill
Banduhurang Turamdih 2007 (open pit)  
Mohuldih Turamdih 2012  
Andhra Pradesh, Kadapa/YSR district Tummalapalle Tummalapalle 2012
2015 (mill)
220 increasing to 330
Andhra Pradesh, Kadapa/YSR district Tummalapalle Kanampalle? 2017?  
Telengana, Nalgonda district Lambapur-Peddagattu Seripally/Mallapuram 2024? (open pit + 3 u/g) 130
Karnataka, Yadgir (Gulbarga) district Gogi Diggi/Saidapur 2020? (underground) 130
Meghalaya, West Khasi Hills district Kylleng-Pyndeng-Sohiong-Mawthabah (KPM), (Domiasiat), Wakhyn Mawthabah 2022? (open pit) 340


Uranium imports from 2014

Year Source Form Tonnes
2014-15 TVEL
UO2 pellets
2015-16 Cameco
UO2 pellets
2016-17 Kazatomprom
UO2 pellets




2017, December, 15, 12:55:00

NUCLEAR - 2050: 25%

WNN - According to the Foratom statement, World Nuclear Association Director General Agneta Rising said: "By 2050, nuclear energy must account for 25% of energy generation if we are to meet our climate targets. With nuclear making up 11% of generation in 2014, an extra 1000 GWe in nuclear capacity will need to be built by 2050. However, meeting this goal will not be easy."


2017, November, 9, 13:50:00


EIA projects that global nuclear capacity will grow at an average annual rate of 1.6% from 2016 through 2040, led predominantly by countries outside of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). EIA expects China to continue leading world nuclear growth, followed by India. This growth is expected to offset declines in nuclear capacity in the United States, Japan, and countries in Europe.


2017, October, 25, 21:26:00


WNN - Asian countries continue to dominate the market for new nuclear build, according to a newly-released report from the World Nuclear Association. Of the 10 new nuclear power reactors that started up worldwide in 2016, eight were located in Asia.


2017, February, 28, 18:50:00


The growing world economy will require more energy, but consumption is expected to grow less quickly than in the past - at 1.3% per year over the Outlook period (2015-2035) compared with 2.2% per year in 1995-2015.


2016, October, 21, 08:20:00


ROSATOM - "Historically, India is one of our key foreign partners. Two power units of Russian design are already operating on the Kudankulam NPP site and two more are under construction. To increase the state corporation's market presence, it was decided to open a regional center in Mumbai. This will enable us to join forces with our Indian partners and enhance the performance of Russian nuclear enterprises operating in India," said Aleksey Pimenov, the Regional President of Rosatom South Asia.






2018, August, 17, 11:30:00


U.S. FRB - Industrial production edged up 0.1 percent in July after rising at an average pace of 0.5 percent over the previous five months. Manufacturing production increased 0.3 percent, the output of utilities moved down 0.5 percent, and, after posting five consecutive months of growth, the index for mining declined 0.3 percent. At 108.0 percent of its 2012 average, total industrial production was 4.2 percent higher in July than it was a year earlier. Capacity utilization for the industrial sector was unchanged in July at 78.1 percent, a rate that is 1.7 percentage points below its long-run (1972–2017) average.

2018, August, 17, 11:25:00


NPD - Preliminary production figures for July 2018 show an average daily production of 1 911 000 barrels of oil, NGL and condensate, which is an increase of 64 000 barrels per day compared to June.

2018, August, 17, 11:20:00


GAZPROM NEFT - For the first six months of 2018 Gazprom Neft achieved revenue** growth of 24.4% year-on-year, at one trillion, 137.7 billion rubles (RUB1,137,700,000,000). The Company achieved a 49.8% year-on-year increase in adjusted EBITDA, to RUB368.2 billion. This performance reflected positive market conditions for oil and oil products, production growth at the Company’s new projects, and effective management initiatives. Net profit attributable to Gazprom Neft PJSC shareholders grew 49.6% year on year, to RUB166.4 billion. Growth in the Company’s operating cash flow, as well as the completion of key infrastructure investments at new upstream projects, delivered positive free cash flow of RUB47.5 billion for 1H 2018.

2018, August, 15, 11:10:00


REUTERS - Front-month Brent crude oil futures LCOc1 were at $72.34 per barrel at 0648 GMT, down by 12 cents, or 0.2 percent, from their last close. U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures CLc1 were down 23 cents, or 0.3 percent, at $66.81 per barrel.

All Publications »